SNICKER: How Alice and Bob Can Mix Bitcoin With No Interaction


SNICKER might be the following software in Bitcoin’s rising privateness toolbox.

Though Satoshi Nakamoto’s white paper means that privateness was a design purpose of the Bitcoin protocol, blockchain evaluation can usually break customers’ privateness at present. It is a drawback. Bitcoin customers may not essentially need the world to know the place they spend their cash, what they earn or how a lot they personal, whereas companies could not wish to leak transaction particulars to opponents — to record a couple of examples.

Luckily, Bitcoin builders and researchers are arising with extra and extra options for customers to reclaim their privateness. Certainly one of these champions for Bitcoin privateness is Adam “waxwing” Gibson, maybe greatest identified for his contributions to JoinMarket, a protocol that lets customers combine their cash — and provides a monetary reward for collaborating in such mixes.

Extra lately, Gibson introduced a brand new concept: SNICKER (Easy Non-Interactive Coinjoin with Keys for Encryption Reused). Now submitted as a draft Bitcoin Enchancment Proposal (BIP), SNICKER would permit for coin mixing with none synchronization or interplay: There’d be no want for customers to coordinate or be on-line on the similar time.


SNICKER relies on the, by now, well-established, bitcoin mixing approach CoinJoin. Among the hottest mixing options out there at present already use this trick, together with Wasabi Pockets (ZeroLink), Samourai Pockets (Whirlpool) and JoinMarket.

Additional Studying: What Are Bitcoin Mixers?

CoinJoin is basically a software to merge a number of transactions into one. So let’s say Alice needs to pay Carol one bitcoin, and Bob needs to pay Dave one bitcoin. On this instance, Alice and Bob can cooperate to create one huge transaction, the place each spend one bitcoin (two complete), and Carol and Dave every obtain one bitcoin. A blockchain spy won’t be able to inform which of the senders paid which of the recipients, benefiting the privateness of all.

In actuality, nevertheless, the quantities of bitcoin transacted are sometimes privateness leaks. If Alice needs to pay Carol one bitcoin, however Bob needs to pay Dave two bitcoin, it is going to be apparent who paid who by matching the sending and receiving quantities.

That’s why CoinJoin is extra usually used for mixing. As a substitute of paying another person, Alice and Bob each ship one bitcoin to themselves. By merging this in a single transaction, blockchain spies can’t inform who obtained which coin again: The cash are combined, defending each Alice and Bob’s privateness going ahead.

CoinJoin mixers work at present, however they’ve a downside: They require interactivity. A CoinJoin transaction is simply legitimate if all collaborating customers signal the entire transaction — however to signal the entire transaction, collaborating customers will need to have first added all of their cash and new receiving addresses to it. This usually implies that they should cross the transaction round a couple of instances and often requires all of them to be on-line on the similar time.

Such necessities are a little bit of a hurdle for a lot of customers, which is one cause CoinJoin transactions aren’t quite common. These necessities are what SNICKER will get round.


The protocol described on this part is the primary proposed model of SNICKER. This model is barely simpler to grasp than various variations however you will need to word that it’s truly not the most effective model of the protocol, or the model that’s most certainly to be carried out. (Extra on various variations later.)

With that stated, right here’s how SNICKER model 1 works:

Say Alice has one bitcoin she needs to combine, represented by an unspent transaction output (UTXO) on the blockchain. The very first thing she does is to resend this bitcoin … to her similar tackle. That’s proper, on this model of SNICKER, she’s reusing an tackle, which violates Bitcoin’s greatest practices. However it turns out to be useful: It publicly marks the UTXO as (doubtlessly) out there for mixing.

This doesn’t imply Alice can’t use the coin, by the way in which. It’s nonetheless sitting in her pockets, able to be spent at any time. It’s simply marked, in case anybody cares.

Bob additionally has one coin to combine. (Essentially, the quantities don’t should be equal beforehand — Bob simply must have no less than as a lot as Alice.) Bob doesn’t know Alice, however he does know that customers like Alice are on the market, marking their UTXOs as mixable. So Bob scans the blockchain for potential matches. He finds Alice’s UTXO, and most likely some extra matching UTXOs, together with false positives (not all reused addresses are actually out there for mixing). However let’s, for now, for simplicity, assume Bob solely finds one match: Alice’s UTXO. (We’ll get again to the opposite potential matches and false positives later.)

With the match, Bob now takes the public key akin to the reused tackle. That is attainable precisely as a result of the tackle is reused: By spending it the primary time, Alice printed that public key on the blockchain. (Public keys turn out to be seen on the blockchain as soon as the cash are spent, whereas addresses are all the time seen.)

At this level, Bob has Alice’s UTXO (as a result of she marked it) and her public key (as a result of she spent from her tackle as soon as).

Now, Bob makes use of Alice’s public key and combines it together with his personal personal key (for the coin he needs to combine) to create a “shared secret.” Fairly actually the oldest trick within the cryptography e book, this secret is shared as a result of solely Alice and Bob can generate it: Bob together with his personal key and Alice’s public key, and Alice together with her personal key and Bob’s public key (akin to the cash he needs to combine).

So now, Bob has Alice’s UTXO and her public key, and a shared secret (as a result of he generated it with Alice’s public key and his personal key).

Bob makes use of the shared secret in a novel approach. He makes use of it to mathematically “tweak” Alice’s public key. This tweaking truly creates a brand new public key. Besides … nobody has the personal key for it. But.

Curiously, thanks to a different little bit of crypto magic, the tweaked personal key for the tweaked public key might be found by Alice as properly! If she’d tweak her unique personal key with the identical shared secret, the ensuing tweaked personal key would correspond to the tweaked public key.

In different phrases, Bob can generate a brand new public key and subsequently a brand new Bitcoin tackle for Alice, that solely she will spend from. Even with out her figuring out proper now!

So, Bob now has Alice’s UTXO and her public key, a shared secret, and a brand new Bitcoin tackle for Alice (generated together with her public key and the shared secret).

That is almost sufficient to create a sound CoinJoin transaction. Particularly, Bob takes Alice’s UTXO and provides the UTXO for his personal coin, so there are two inputs. He then provides Alice’s new tackle and an tackle of his personal as outputs (in addition to charges and another particulars, like a change tackle for himself, if wanted). And he indicators the transaction.

The one factor lacking now’s Alice’s signature.

Reaching Alice

The ultimate step — reaching Alice — is definitely simpler than it sounds however requires one final trick.

Bob may merely publish the almost-complete CoinJoin transaction someplace for Alice to seek out. For instance, on a bulletin board devoted to SNICKER customers; ideally one on a Tor hidden service or in any other case assured to supply anonymity of publishers.

Nonetheless, if performed in plain textual content, this is able to nonetheless not be ideally suited. If a spy retains a watch on the bulletin board, they might trivially see which enter belongs to the proposer (on this case Bob), and which enter belongs to the taker (on this case Alice): The signed one is the proposer’s. This might be a privateness leak in itself. However it’d be even worse if Bob makes extra proposals to combine completely different cash. In that case, the spy may be capable to join the entire completely different UTXOs to Bob, for instance, as a result of his batch of proposals was posted to the bulletin board on the similar time.

So, as an alternative, Bob encrypts the CoinJoin transaction … with Alice’s public key! That approach, solely Alice can decrypt the transaction and the spy can’t be taught something.

After posting the encrypted transaction on the bulletin board, Bob has performed all he must do. He can disappear on-line, if he so pleases.

Alice’s Flip

Because the CoinJoin transaction is now encrypted, this does introduce one final, slight complication. Whereas Alice is aware of the place to search for the bundle — on the SNICKER bulletin board — she doesn’t know what to search for: All CoinJoin transactions on the bulletin board appear to be encrypted blobs.

There is just one approach out. Alice must strive and decrypt all packages together with her personal key, hoping that one among them turns into one thing helpful.

However when Bob’s encrypted blob turns right into a CoinJoin transaction, Alice has the whole lot she wants to finish the combo. She makes use of her personal key and Bob’s public key (which is included in his enter) to generate the shared secret, which she will, in flip, use to create her new, tweaked personal key. After checking that the brand new key corresponds to her new receiving tackle within the output, she indicators and broadcasts the transaction to the Bitcoin community.

Alice and Bob combined their cash, though they by no means interacted, nor did they even should be on-line on the similar time.

And whereas the method could sound considerably laborious in textual content, remember the fact that all of it may be abstracted away by software program, to be translated into a couple of buttons on a laptop computer or telephone display screen, and even automated utterly.


SNICKER as defined thus far, is the primary model of the proposal. Already, Gibson has recommended a second model, and different variations are on the desk as properly.

The second SNICKER model is comparable however avoids the necessity for tackle reuse — at the price of barely extra complexity.

On this second model, Bob doesn’t get Alice’s public key from a reused tackle. As a substitute, Bob takes the general public key from an enter of the identical transaction that created Alice’s UTXO. Bob assumes that no less than one of many inputs in that transaction was created by Alice herself and that she nonetheless has the personal keys for these.

Bob makes this assumption as a result of this time, Alice’s UTXO is much more clearly marked as out there for mixing, and it might solely be so clearly marked if Alice controls the personal keys akin to the inputs. The SNICKER BIP doesn’t specify how the preliminary marking can be performed however means that sure wallets (like JoinMarket wallets) unmistakably reveal such info. Alternatively, Alice may merely submit a message on the bulletin board promoting her UTXO.

However even higher: As soon as SNICKER begins getting used, discovering new matches ought to turn out to be a lot simpler. It is because SNICKER transactions themselves can be trivial to acknowledge, and present SNICKER customers are more likely to wish to combine their cash once more. In different phrases, after an preliminary bootstrapping part, unmixed cash can be combined with beforehand combined cash, leading to extra combined cash which may in flip be leveraged for extra mixing.

Challenges and Alternatives

As talked about above, the SNICKER BIP remains to be only a draft and topic to evaluation and potential enchancment. (Already, the concept has advanced in some features because it was first publicly proposed by Gibson in a weblog submit.) The proposal has now been submitted to turn out to be a BIP so it may be standardized and, down the road, be made appropriate between completely different wallets.

SNICKER can be confronted with some open questions and challenges, though none of those appear insurmountable. These embrace, for instance, which UTXOs must be chosen as matches, and, particularly, easy methods to restrict the variety of false positives. Apart from reused addresses, potential matches may for instance be filtered for quantities, age of the UTXO or particular varieties of wallets used.

However as alluded to earlier on this article, even when there are a number of matches (together with false positives), that is possible solely a small drawback. Offerers (“Bob”) may merely create candidate transactions for all of them. Even when these proposals battle (as a result of Bob makes use of his similar UTXO for all), it merely implies that the primary taker (the primary “Alice”) to reply will get the combo — different potential takers will discover they had been too late, however no hurt can be performed. For false positives, no actual hurt is completed both, Bob’s supply will simply sit on the bulletin board, ignored endlessly (or till it’s eliminated).

What might be a very important drawback, nevertheless, is spam. As a result of the bulletin board would host encrypted blops of knowledge, it might be not possible to filter out “pretend” proposals: random gibberish posted by an attacker to disrupt the SNICKER protocol. Gibson proposed some options to this drawback in his draft BIP, however these would current new trade-offs, like a value to submit a proposal.

On the flipside, SNICKER additionally provides some advantages which were neglected of the reason thus far for the sake of simplicity. One such profit is that offerers) can add some funds to a taker’s output, including some monetary incentive to simply accept the combo. It could even be attainable to conduct SNICKER mixes with greater than two customers on the similar time — though it will make the trick far more complicated.

And precisely as a result of the protocol is noninteractive, Gibson believes that SNICKER can be comparatively simple to implement in wallets, in comparison with another privateness applied sciences, like JoinMarket. Thus far, the Electrum pockets has proven curiosity in adopting the proposal — although precise implementation of it might nonetheless be a great distance off.

For extra info and background on SNICKER, see the draft BIP, observe the bitcoin-dev mailing record dialogue or learn Gibson’s (barely outdated) weblog submit on the proposal.

Source link Bitcoin Magazine


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